Atomic interface structures provide a unique opportunity to design new materials that can provide promising solutions to future technological demands. This talk presents an overview of two diverse areas of activity at the Surface and Nano Engineering Laboratory at the University of Texas, Arlington, where interface engineering was used to produce new materials. First, the fundamental role of the interface structure in the microstructural evolution of epitaxial Perovskite-type oxide nanostructures is addressed. It is shown that the physical properties of such epitaxial oxides are strongly affected by their microstructure and interface structure and can be grown into a variety of architectures. In the second topic, an overview is presented of recent results from our current program under the materials genome initiative concerning a new class of quaternary (Zr,Hf,Ta)SiBN nanocomposite coatings for harsh environments. These nanostructured coatings present a much wider potential for applications such as advanced aerospace technologies, high-temperature microelectronics and optoelectronics. Theoretical predictions and experimental findings are presented regarding the design and development of thermally stable, ultra-hard, high temperature oxidation resistant coatings.